Atmospheric Vortex Engine

Background Material for

"Unrestrained Expansion a Source of Entropy"


trenberth

Figure 1:  Energy Budget of the Earth – Energy in W/m2. Source:  Tremberth and NASA



Keihl Energy Budget

Figure 2:  Energy Budget of the Earth – Energy in percent. Source:  Kiehl and NASA



Herman Exergy

Figure 3: Exergy Destruction for Energy Services.  Source: Herman, W. 2006. Earth’s Exergy Resources. GCEP Energy Assessment Symposium. Stanford University.



Herman Exergy

Figure 4: Exergy Flux, Accumulation, Destruction, and use. Source: Herman, W. 2006. Earth’s Exergy Resources. GCEP Energy Assessment Symposium. Stanford University. Click for a larger version of the image



Herman Exergy

Figure 5:  Thermal Exergy. Source: Herman, W. 2006. Earth’s Exergy Resources. GCEP Energy Assessment Symposium. Stanford University.



Peixoto

Figure 6: Entropy budget of Global atmosphere; Entropy in mW m-2 K-1. Source: Peixoto and Oort, Physics of Climate, American Institute of Physics, 1992. (Note:  Corrections to original marked in red).
Click for a larger version of the image



Lorenz Kleidon Entropy

Figure 7:  Entropy Production by Earth System Process - Kleidon Fig. 1.1. Source: Kleidon and Lorenz, 2004. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics andthe production of entropy: life, Earth, and beyond. Springer Verlag.  



Earth entropy Lorenz Kleidon

Figure 8:  Entropy Production by Earth System Processes - Kleidon Fig. 1.2. Source: Kleidon and Lorenz, 2004. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the production of entropy: life, Earth, and beyond. Springer Verlag. Click for a larger version of the image



Ozawa

Figure 9:  The global climate system - Ozawa Fig 1. Source: Ozawa, H. et. al. 2003. The second law of thermodynamics and the global climate system: A review of the maximum entropy production principle. Reviews of Geophysics 41, 4/1018-2003.



Ozawa Climate

Figure 10:  The global climate system - Ozawa Fig 3. Source: Ozawa, H. et. al. 2003. The second law of thermodynamics and the global climate system: A review of the maximum entropy production principle. Reviews of Geophysics 41, 4/1018-2003.



Ozawa fig 5ab

Figure 11:  The global climate system - Ozawa Fig 5ab. Source: Ozawa, H. et. al. 2003. The second law of thermodynamics and the global climate system: A review of the maximum entropy production principle. Reviews of Geophysics 41, 4/1018-2003.




“The total rate of entropy production is described by
the rate of entropy discharge from the system.”

“In short, both thermal and mechanical dissipation lead
to the entropy production in the whole system.”



Figure 12:  Quotes from Ozawa. Source: Ozawa, H. et. al. 2003. The second law of thermodynamics and the global climate system: A review of the maximum entropy production principle. Reviews of Geophysics 41, 4/1018-2003.



Michaud 1996

Figure 13:  Entropy Budget of an air column - Michaud Fig 4
Source: Michaud, L., 1996. Heat to work conversion during upward heat convection. Part II: Internally generated entropy method. Atmospheric Research 41, 93-108.



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