Atmospheric Vortex Engine

AVE Publications

An alternate way of showing the enormous energy production potential of the atmospheric vortex engine.

Preventing solar energy degradation could be the energy source of the future.
New manuscript posted June 2017.

Link to full DEGRADATION manuscript

Atmospheric Vortex Engine (AVE) - Technical Overview

Atmospheric Vortex Engine (AVE) - Technical Overview, AVEtec Energy Corporation, January 2015

Link to full article PDF 2.7

Lambton College Vortex Engine Prototype Findings

Overview of Lambton College Vortex Engine Prototype Findings, by: Louis Michaud,

Link to Overview.

Lambton College Vortex Engine Prototype Finding Report, by: Louis Michaud, Mehdi Sheikhzadeh and Kevin Ryan.

Link to Report

International Conference on Solar Updraft Tower Power Technology SUTPT2012

Huazhong University, Wuhan, China, October 27, 2012


Description of the proposed proposed Atmospheric Vortex Engine (AVE) process, its thermodynamic basis, the progress made to date and the current development plan.

Presentation entitled "Energy from Convective Vortices" - Presented by Brian Monrad

Article expanding on the thermodynamic basis of the AVE process.

Paper entitled "Energy from Convective Vortices"  -  Written by Louis Michaud and Brian Monrad and published in SUTPT2012 transactions

Supporting presentation by Mr. Donald Cooper, MIE Australia

Presentation entitled: "Reaping the Whirlwind - The Atmospheric Vortex Engine" presented by Donald Cooper,Member of the Institute of Engineers of Australia

Hurricane Sea to Air Heat Transfer

Presentation made at the American Meteorological Society 18th Air Sea Interaction Conference, July 2012

Hurricane cooling is usually attributed to upwelling and mixing of cold water from below. The presentation proposes the opposite hypothesis, namely that: “Hurricane sea cooling is almost entirely due to heat removal from above and not to cold water from below”.

Hurricane Sea to Air Heat Transfer - Presentation Abstract - PDF (20 KB)

Hurricane Sea to Air heat Transfer - Presentation Slides - PDF (600 KB)

Hurricane Sea to Air Heat Transfer - Manuscript - PDF (1300 KB)

Link to American Meteorological Society conference web site 

Link to American Meteorological Society Conference recorded oral presentation

Revisions to Spray Production and Deposition Areas

The original 18th Air Sea Interaction conference presentation suggested that spray is produced mainly under the eyewall of the right rear quadrant and then deposited to the right of the hurricane track. This revised theory suggests that the spray is produced along the hurricane track and carried by the wind to the right of the hurricane track. See link to figures showing the revised and original spray production and deposition areas. The revised theory is based on the surface and subsurface sea temperature measurements in paper: Cold Wake of Hurricane Frances and its associated auxiliary material to which links are also provided.

Reference for D"Asaro et al. 2007 paper:
D’Asaro EA, Sanford TB, Niiler PP, Terrill EJ (2007) Cold wake of hurricane Frances. Geophy Res Ltrs 34:L15609,  doi:10.1029/2007GL030160, 2007

Link to Rational for the theory revision

Link to revised spray production and deposition areas figures

Link to paper: Cold Wake of Hurricane Frances

Link to auxiliary material for paper: Cold Wake of Hurricane Frances

On Hurricane Intensity

Michaud, L. M. 2012: On Hurricane Energy. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys


Warm sea water is the energy source for hurricanes. Interfacial sea‑to‑air heat transfer without spray ranges from 100 W m-2 in light wind to 1000 W m-2 in hurricane force wind. Spray can increase sea‑to‑air heat transfer by 2 orders of magnitude and result in heat transfers of up to 100,000 W m-2. Drops of spray falling back in the sea can be 2 to 4 °C colder than the drops leaving the sea thus transferring a large quantity of heat from sea to air. The heat of evaporation is taken from the sensible heat of the remainder of the drop; evaporating approximately 0.3% of a drop is sufficient to reduce its temperature to the wet bulb temperature of the air. The heat required to evaporate hurricane precipitation is roughly equal to the heat removed from the sea indicating that sea cooling is due to heat removal from above and not to the mixing of cold water from below. The paper shows how case studies of ideal thermodynamics processes can help explain hurricane intensity.

Springer Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics web site where the article "ON HURRICANE ENERGY" is available for a fee

Author's version of accepted manuscript: ON HURRICANE ENERGY available free

Harnessing Energy From Convective Vortices

Pre-publication manuscript submitted for peer reviewed publication IEEE Power Energy System Magazine / sustainability Transaction in September 2011.

The paper describes the atmospheric vortex engine process, its thermodynamics basis and its potential.

Harnessing Energy from Convective Vortices - Complete text with figures and table - PDF (7900 KB)

Harnessing Energy from Convective Vortices - Complete text without figures or table - PDF (70 KB)

Figures 1 to 9 - PDF (7700 KB)
Table 1 - PDF (20 KB)

Presentation showing that atmospheric energy production can be calculated with chemical engineering program PROII

Mechanical Engineering Magazine

Mechanical Engineering Magazine

Mechanical Engineering Magazine, April, 2011, The Sky's the Limit
Link to "The sky's the Limit" at Mechanical Engineering Magazine

 POWER Magazine

power magazine

Power Magazine, March 1, 2010, Harnessing Energy from Upward Heat Convection
Link to "Harnessing Upward Heat Convection" at Power Magazine

"For more than 127 years POWER magazine has been considered the definitive information source for the power generation market. We covered the earliest advances of steam power plants in the 1800s and addressed energy supply issues during World Wars I and II. We were the first to report on the birth of nuclear power, and today we report on modern advanced power technologies, including wind, solar, tidal, and ultrasupercritical generation. Our coverage of the worldwide power generation industry, which includes all fuel types and generation technologies, has never been more critical as the world grapples with so many supply options and regulatory hurdles."

Energy Manager Magazine

Energy Manager Magazine, October-December, 2009, Vol 2, No 4, ISSN 0974-0996, published by Energy Press, Ernakulam, India
"A quarterly magazine of the society of energy engineers and managers / India" (
Atmospheric Vortex Engine - published in Energy Manager - PDF (848 KB)

IEEE - Science and Technology for Humanity

"The Atmospheric Vortex Engine", Presented at IEEE TIC-STH
Toronto International Conference - Science and Technology for Humanity
September 26-27, 2009 at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Draft of peer reviewed paper 1569197181 to be published in TIC-STH conference proceedings - PDF (88 KB)
TIC-STH Presentation Slides - PDF (4.9 MB)
TIC-STH Presentation Notes - PDF (41 KB)

New Unpublished Manuscript - Hurricane Isabel Intensity

Recent dropsonde observations in hurricane Isabel provided unprecedented high quality data on eyewall: air temperature, relative humidity and sea surface temperature. This January 2007 manuscript shows that eyewall temperature and humidity can be used to calculate minimum eyewall pressure and maximum wind speed.
Hurricane isabel Intensity - Complete Paper - PDF (160 KB)
Table 1 - PDF - (74 KB)
Figure 1 - JPG (61KB)
Figure 2 - JPG (61KB)
Printout of MATHCAD calculation results for case 4 - PDF (117 KB)

Technical Meeting Presentations

Unrestrained Expansion - A Source of Entropy, American Geophysical Union Fall 2005 Meeting - Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics - Poster Session
Unrestrained Expansion - A Source of Entropy - Complete Paper - PDF (143 KB)
Unrestrained Expansion - AGU Poster Presentation - Powerpoint PPT (647 KB)
References for "Unrestrained Expansion - A Source of Entropy"
Background Material for "Unrestrained Expansion - A Source of Entropy"

"The Atmospheric Vortex Engine" - A presentation prepared for the Wayne State University Department of Physics & Astronomy, Winter 2008 Nuclear Physics Seminar, at the invitation of Professor Giovanni Bonvicini, and presented on January 18, 2008
The Atmospheric Vortex Engine - WSU Presentation Slides - PDF (6.3 MB)
Thermodynamic Presentation- PDF (6.4 MB)
Thermodynamic Presentation Notes - PDF (85 kB)

The Atmospheric Vortex Engine Concept. Presentation by Don Cooper for Engineers Australia, West Perth, Australia, April 22, 2009
Engineers Australia - The Atmospheric Vortex Engine Concept by Don Cooper - Presentation Announcement - PDF (151 KB)
Link to full copy of presentation on Engineers Australia website

Peer Reviewed Publications

The proposal has been described and explained in the following reviewed publications. Links to Web versions of the articles are provided where available. The copyright to these publication belong to the publishers. Single copies of the articles can be downloaded and printed for the reader's personal research and study.

(1) Proposal for the use of a controlled tornado-like vortex to capture the mechanical energy produced in the atmosphere from solar energy. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Michaud, L.M., Vol. 56, Pg. 530-534, 1975.
Complete Article - PDF (544 KB)

(2) On the energy and control of atmospheric vortices. J. Rech. Atmos., Michaud, L.M., Vol. 11, Pg. 99-120, 1977.
Complete Article - PDF (20.6 MB)

(3) Heat to work conversion during upward heat convection. Part I: Carnot engine method.
Reprinted from: Atmospheric Research, Michaud, L.M., Vol. 39, Pg. 157-178, 1995, with permission from Elsevier Science.
© Copyright: Elsevier Science Ltd.
Link to abstract
Complete Article - PDF (1.1 MB)

(4a) Comment on "Convective potential energy in the environment of oceanic and continental clouds., J. Atmos. Sci., Michaud, L.M., Vol.53, pg. 1209-1211, 1996.
Copy of comment - PDF (231 KB)

(4b) Reply to Comment on "Convective potential energy in the environment of oceanic and continental clouds., J. Atmos. Sci., Lucas, C., and Zipser, E., Vol.53, pg. 1212-1214, 1996.
Copy of reply to comment - PDF (219 KB)

(5) Heat to work conversion during upward heat convection.Part II: Internally generated entropy method.
Reprinted from: Atmospheric Research, Michaud, L.M., Vol. 41, Pg. 93-108, 1996, with permission from Elsevier Science.
© Copyright: Elsevier Science Ltd.
Link to abstract
Complete Article - PDF (709 KB)

(6) Entrainment and detrainment required to explain updraft properties and work dissipation.
Reprinted from: Tellus A., Michaud, L.M., Vol. 50A, Pg. 283-301, 1998, with permission from Munksgaard publications.
Full text PDF from Tellus web site
Full text scanned PDF from (30.9 MB)
Mathcad Calculations

(7) Vortex process for capturing mechanical energy during upward heat-convection in the atmosphere.
Reprinted from: Applied Energy, Author: Michaud, L.M., Vol. 62(4), Pg. 241-251, March, 1999, with permission from Elsevier Science.
© Copyright: Elsevier Science Ltd
Complete Copy of article - PDF (200 KB)
Table 1: Summary of article calculations
Mathcad 5.0 Program used to generate Table 1

(8) Thermodynamic cycle of the atmospheric upward heat convection process.
Reprinted from:Meteor. Atmos. Phys., Michaud, L.M., Vol. 72, Pg. 29-46, 2000, with permission from Springer-Verlag.
Abstract from Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics journal site

Full text PDF from
Thermodynamic Figures - Powerpoint PPT (122 KB)

(9) Total energy equation method for calculating hurricane intensity. Added to site Nov. 2001.
Reprinted from:Meteor. Atmos. Phys., Michaud, L.M., Vol. 78, Pg. 35-43, 2001, with permission from Springer-Verlag.
Full text from
Full text PDF from vortex

Unpublished Papers

(1) Note on: The energy deficit of 20 to 30 W/m2observed in climate models.
Manuscript with figures - PDF (65 KB)

(2) Subsidence required to replace radiative heat loss with work of compression.
Manuscript with figures - PDF (147 KB)
Manuscript Figures - PDF (73 KB)

(3) Could wind turbines be contributing to recent arctic warming and unusual extreme weather?
Manuscript with figures - PDF (900 KB)
Note: Posted January 2017 - after the manuscript having been submitted unsucessfully to eight scientific publications.

Web Publications

(1) Energy Central White Paper Website ("Global Power Industry News"), Report posted: 9 December 2004
Link to Atmospheric Vortex Engine paper on Energy Central

(2) Energy Bulletin Website ("A clearinghouse for current information regarding the peak in global energy supply")
A Proposal for a new Renewable Energy Source: The Atmospheric Vortex Engine, "A brief comprehensive description of the Atmospheric Vortex Engine written by Eric Michaud and Louis Michaud", Paper posted: 15 April 2005
Link to the article on Energy Bulletin

(3) The Atmospheric Vortex Engine:  A Wind Turbine Station Designed to Capture Vertical 'Winds', Windtech International print edition ("A world-wide information magazine for the wind energy industry"), January/February 2006 issue
Link to Windtech article leader on web
Link to Windtech International website

(4) The Potential of the Atmospheric Convection Engine -- Capturing Energy in the Atmosphere, EnergyPulse ("EnergyPulse is the global forum for power industry professionals"), January 26, 2006
Link to EnergyPulse article


(1) HP48SX Software Programs for Atmospheric Thermodynamic Calculations
Link to HP48SX software page

(2) Mathcad Thermodynamic Calculations
Link to Mathcad files

Miscellaneous Other Information

(1) Presentation on Atmospheric Work Production and Dissipation
Work Production and Dissipation Presentation - PDF (340 KB)

(2) Willis Island Sounding Data
Willis Island Sounding Figures - Powerpoint PPS (458 KB)